ARTICLE IN PRESS
Diary of Purchasing & Supply Supervision 14 (2008) 170– 179
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Journal of buying & Source Management
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Cooperating and competing in supply systems: Making perception of a triadic sourcing strategy Anna Dubois Ã, Philip Fredriksson one particular
Division of Professional Marketing, Section of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
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Content history: Received 20 June 2007 Received in revised form 15 May 2008 Accepted 18 May 2008 Keywords: Sourcing strategy Triads Cooperation Competition Supply sites
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This paper introduces the concept of a ‘‘triadic sourcing strategy''. Triadic finding is a means for buying corporations to nurture and beneﬁt from assistance and competition between two suppliers with partially overlapping capabilities. As opposed to hybrid finding strategies layed out in the literatureparallel and network sourcing—the distinctive feature of triadic sourcing would be that the buyer positively creates interdependencies between two suppliers. To illustrate this kind of principle as well as the characteristics of triadic sourcing, Volvo Cars' use of two suppliers of seats is described. The paper claims that triadic sourcing is actually a dynamic finding strategy that contributes to efﬁciency and creativity for the purchaser and the two suppliers, collectively forming a triad that may be subject to ﬁrm interdependence and network embeddedness. & 08 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1 . Introduction Sourcing strategies had been on top of the agenda in the area of industrial getting for a long time (Kraljic, 1983; Gadde and ˚ Hakansson, 93; Ellram and Carr, year 1994; Cousins and Spekman, 2003; Day and Lichtenstein, 06\; Ventovuori, 2006). In view of developments towards minimizing the amounts of suppliers and increasing the information in the human relationships with the leftover ones (Cousins, 1999; vonseiten Corswant and Fredriksson, 2002; ¨ ¨ Kemppainen and Vepsalainen, 2003; Sarkar and Mohapatra, 2006), the pros and cons of single and multiple finding have been debated and analyzed (see for example Lamming ain al., 2000; Helper, 1991; Richardson, 93; De Toni and Nassimbeni, 1999; Zeng, 2000). Moreover to these ‘‘extreme'' forms of finding strategies, crossbreed forms such as ‘‘parallel sourcing'' (Richardson, 1993) and ‘‘network sourcing'' (Hines, 1995, 1996) have been suggested. These aim at combining the beneﬁts of single and multiple sourcing, by enabling competition among suppliers, when also retaining cooperation between your buyer and each supplier, correspondingly. The aim of this paper is always to introduce another and different hybrid sourcing technique: ‘‘triadic sourcing''. Triadic finding is a means for buying firms to nurture and beneﬁt from
assistance and competition between two suppliers with partially overlapping capabilities. Unlike the cross strategies of seite an seite and network sourcing, the distinctive feature of triadic sourcing is that the buyer actively makes and motivates interdependencies between two suppliers. The triadic sourcing strategy hence relies upon the supposition that companies may beneﬁt from interdependencies to different actors. To illustrate the assumptions plus the key facets of triadic finding, the case of Volvo Cars' sourcing of seats can be presented. This kind of exemplary case shows what sort of buying company can foster a creative pressure between co-operation and competition between two interdependent suppliers through a sophisticated and energetic division of labor between them. The next section reveals a literary works review of parallel and network sourcing as well as the basis for triadic finding. Thereafter, the situation is shown. Triadic finding is then deﬁned as a finding strategy, and then managerial significance for buyers and suppliers.
2 . Hybrid sourcing tactics 2 . 1 . Parallel and network finding Parallel finding...
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Anna Dubois is Professor at the division of Industrial Advertising, Chalmers University or college of Technology. Her exploration interests focus on supply sequence management with an focus on industrial getting.
Peter Fredriksson is Associate Professor at the division of Commercial Marketing, Chalmers University of Technology. His research and teaching concern supply sequence management and product modularity.